In general, skateboards consist of three main components: decks, trucks, and wheels.

The complete skateboard, however, is composed of 14 components. Every element serves a purpose and requires fine adjustment.

Among all the components on a skateboard, the skateboard truck is the most intricate and complex. They support the skateboarder’s weight, keep the wheels rolling, and hold the deck a few inches above the ground.

To assemble your skateboard, you just simply need a good skate tool to tighten wheels, mount hardware, and adjust the height of your kingpin.

Having said that, let’s take a closer look at the anatomy of the skateboard!

Skateboard Deck

Skateboard decks are wooden platforms on which riders place their feet and onto which other parts are attached.

Although there are lots of different sizes and shapes of popsicle-shaped skateboard decks, but most feature a kick in the tail and a nose on both sides.

Due to subtle differences between the front (the nose) and rear (the tail), skateboard decks are not exactly symmetrical.

Additionally, the deck has some sort of concave and a more or less gentle curve.

As a general rule, narrow skateboards are more responsive and easy to flip, but they are less stable. Wideboards are more stable, but they are more difficult to maneuver.

To buy your first skateboard, place several decks on the ground, and choose a size that is slightly wider than your foot.

To put it another way, when your heels are even with one side, your toes should be an inch at an angle from the other.

Skateboard Grip Tape

Grip tape is a sandpaper-like sheet on the top surface that helps skateboarders grip their boards.

Skateboard Bolts

The deck is attached to the trucks by bolts.

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The deck is drilled with two sets of four holes. Additionally, The trucks are held on the board by eight bolts in total.

For advance skateboarders, You can loosen them for easier turning, but make sure they’re tight enough so that you cannot undo them with your fingers.

Skateboard Trucks

In skateboard decks, trucks are the most important and complex part. It’s designed so that you can turn, skate around, and jump.

Skateboard trucks are made of steel and are extremely durable. In many cases, it outlasts all the other components of a skateboard.

The truck consists of several components, including the baseplate, the kingpin, the hanger, the bushings, the axle, and the axle nut.

The width of a truck is determined by the length of its hanger (127-187 mm) and axle (193-254 mm).

But Ideally, a rider wants the outside of the wheels slightly hidden within both sides of the deck.

Ultimately, how large the board’s trucks are depends on the choice of the deck.

Skateboard Baseplate

Baseplates are solid metal plates with machine-drilled holes that attach to skateboard decks.

Skateboard Kingpin

Kingpins are large threaded pins – or large bolts – coming out of the baseplate.

Skateboard Hanger

A hanger is attached to the other end of the kingpin.

This metal component takes all the beating. Due to this, it is the heaviest and toughest part of the skateboard.

Generally, it is made of steel, but there are also lighter, more durable, and more expensive alloys available.

There are two axles that stick out of the hanger that attaches the both wheels.

Skateboard Bushings

There are two bushings on each skateboard truck, these are the components that allow the skateboard to turn.

In skateboarding, bushings are small rubber cups that pivot when the skateboarder leans left or right. This is an essential part of any skateboard that is sandwiched between the baseplate and the hanger, the metal parts of any skateboard.

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In order to adjust how easily the board turns, you can tighten or loosen the bolt that holds the bushings and hanger.

Depending on the riding conditions, bushings come in a variety of hardness levels. And usually stiffer bushings suit technical and heavy riders, while lighter skaters and cruisers prefer softer bearings for easy turning.

Always remember, when your bushings crack and become worn out, they may need to be replaced.

Skateboard Axle

Every truck has an axle that connects its two wheels. It is also known as a hanger shaft.

The measurement range is 193 to 254 mm, which is the standard for how trucks are measured today.

As a general rule of thumb is that the axle length should keep the wheels within 1/4 inch of the edge of the deck, and skateboard wheels should run smoothly on their axles.

Skateboard Axle Nut

To secure the wheel to the axle of the truck, an axle nut is threaded on to the axle. 

If an axle nut and/or the end of the axle become worn enough, removing or attaching the axle nut can become difficult or impossible. If that happens, The best way to fix this problem is to flip the nut upside down, use a different nut, or replace the truck altogether. 

In order to prevent this from occurring, Silver Trucks Company actually has a special shield that is threaded into the end of the axle.

Skateboard Risers

A riser is an optional element that can be placed between the deck and the baseplate. This rubbery or plasticy pad absorbs shock and offers extra cushioning.

If you are using the risers, As a result, the wooden deck may last for a longer time because it can withstand sudden and powerful impacts.

Additionally, they add space between the wheels and the bottom of the deck to prevent them from hitting the bottom of the board.

But the flip side of these risers is, Since they raise the skater’s center of gravity, flip tricks become difficult to land.

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Skateboard Wheels

Skateboards are assembled with four urethane wheels that are categorized by diameter and hardness.

Generally, they are between 50mm and 70mm in diameter, and they have a hardness scale (durometer) ranging from 78A to 100A.

Wheels that are large and soft are more forgiving and absorb impacts better. Usually they have a size ranging from 67 mm to 80 mm, which makes them ideal for cruising and vert riding.

Hard and small wheels are great for skateparks and sidewalks and for performing tricks, and their sizes ranging from 52 mm to 58 mm.

Skateboard Washers

Most skateboards assembled in skate shops have two washers between the axle nuts and the hanger bearings. So, In order for wheels to spin smoothly, washers are necessary.

Skateboard Bearings

There are eight bearings on a skateboard, two in each of the four polyurethane wheels. These bearings have small steel balls inside them, and they look like rings. 

The purpose of the bearings on either side of the wheel is to allow the wheel to spin smoothly. 

In some cases, between the bearings, there is also an aluminum spacer that keeps everything aligned inside the wheel.

In order to determine where a bearing stands, it is rated by its ABEC (Annular Bearing Engineers Committee) factor. To put it simply, they are rated according to their smoothness and quality by ABEC rating.

In case you are not familiar with ABEC rating, there actually have 9 levels of quality on the ABEC scale, from 1 (low quality and cheap) to 9 (better quality and more expensive).

In conclusion

a skateboard is made up of a number of different parts that all work together to create a smooth ride. 

Knowing the anatomy of a skateboard can help you understand how to best use your board and how to take care of it. Thanks for reading!


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